What is Snort? Bonus: How to Write Snort Rules!

Snort is an open-source, signature-based Network-based Intrusion Detection System (NIDS). Actually, Snort is much more than just a NIDS because it also acts a packet analyzer and a Network-based Intrusion Prevention System (NIPS). Snort was originally developed to be a packet analyzer, and with such sniffing capabilities, it can be used to detect intrusions on... Continue Reading →

Routers: Understanding The Basics

Routers   A router is a layer 3 (Network) device. Unlike hubs and switches that connect computers, servers, printers, or other peripheral systems together, a router connects networks together. Therefore, you can connect 2 or more LANs together and even connect two or more larger networks together in a WAN. There are several types of... Continue Reading →

Switch Security

I've made several posts about switches, how they function, and the amazing features they possess, but now it's time to talk about their security. Let's start with switching loops. Switching Loops and STP/RSTP In some cases, a network can develop a "switching loop," sometimes called a "bridging loop." In networks with a lot of switches,... Continue Reading →

Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)

Older Networks: Our LANs can get messy. On our typically older corporate networks, there were many switches that separated different organizational units of a company into separate broadcast domains. In essence, switches were not only used for connecting devices and peripherals, but to also group computers together based on job function or department roles. For... Continue Reading →

Port Mirroring on Switches

Modern switches have a lot of cool, useful features that make these devices simple to manage, but perhaps, more difficult to configure. In my last post about switches, I mentioned I'd go into a little more detail about the features that switches have to offer. One of the first features I mentioned was "port mirroring."... Continue Reading →

Switches Are The Way to Go

A "switch" is a Layer 2 (Data Link) device that largely replaced hubs in the early days of networking. These days, it's hard to imagine any network tech installing a hub over a switch. The greatest benefit of a switch over a hub is that is has "intelligence," well, managed switches do, at least. Managed... Continue Reading →

Why We Don’t Use Hubs Anymore

Hubs might appear to be Layer 2 (Data Link) devices, and I wouldn't blame you if you thought of them as such; however, hubs are actually Layer 1 (Physical) devices. Hubs are, in a sense, "dumb." They are unintelligent devices that simply provide connectivity to several devices. A long time ago, we used hubs as... Continue Reading →

Network Interface Cards (NICs)

How does your computer or mobile device connect to the network in your home or your company's internal network? How are your devices able to transmit, receive, and process information from the Internet? The magic lies in a small card called a Network Interface Card (NIC) built-in to your device. You might also hear them... Continue Reading →


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