Category: Networking Topics

An Intermediate-level Discussion on Network Switches

A "switch" is a Data Link (layer 2) device responsible for receiving, processing, and forwarding network traffic based on destination MAC addresses. Modern day switches are "smart" and manageable, either from a web console or a command-line interface (CLI). Due to the fact that they break apart collision domains, eliminate collisions, provide full-duplex communication, and ...

The Recent 4G LTE Network Vulnerabilities and Attacks

In this blog post, I'll discuss the design and operation of a 4G LTE network. In hindsight, I realize topics such as these can get extremely lengthy. For that reason, I'll limit this discussion down to only the necessary technical details required to understand these new LTE attacks, while excluding any complicating, non-essentials. These new ...

KRACK Attacks: Key Reinstallation AttaCKs that Break WPA2

This is something I covered last year, but I wanted to go more in-depth in this topic now that there is more information on it. Our Wi-Fi wireless networks are currently protected by a security encryption protocol called "Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)." In the previous decades before, our wireless networks depended on a legacy ...

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

"Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)" is defined in RFC 793. Its purpose is to govern the way in which computers exchange data and describe how reliable connections are created between a sending machine and a receiving machine. TCP works together with "Internet Protocol (IP)." Together, the TCP/IP protocol suite make up the rules that define the ...